Four women of the female chain gang wait for a coffin from the hearse to perform " burial duty ," in the Arizona desert forty miles from Estrella Jail. Estrella Jail is home to the male and America's only female chain gang. Inmates stay in there tiny 8x12 foot cells 23 hours of the day during " lock down," unless they are out on assigned chain gang duty, for which they can volunteer. There are no television or organized recreation provided. Inmates must memorize 10 rules of conduct, addressing grooming, behaviour and attitude. Chain Gang and other privileged duties can be suspended for infractions such as swearing. Sheriff Joe Arpaio has instituted the chain gang as a way of rehabilitating the inmates through hard work, while providing financial restitution to the community. He also has cut costs to taxpayers dramatically by streamlining meals ( no coffee, lowering daily caloric allowance from 3000 to 2500, serving only very basic food) and lodging, ( in addition to the Estrella block and others like it, there is " Tent City, " where inmates are housed in surplus army tents set up out in the desert ). Despite the savings, Maricopa County has incurred legal costs defending Tent City and the chain gangs from critics ( including Amnesty International ) and a law suit following the death of an inmate during a struggle with guards. Joe Arpaio is known as " Americas Toughest Sheriff." He served in the U.S. Army from 1950 to 1953, and then did undercover work infiltrating drug organizations and arresting drug offenders in the United States, Mexico, Turkey, the Middle East and Central and South America. His expertise led him to managment positions in the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) in the United States and around the world. He eventually became head of the DEA in Arizona. In 1992 Arpaio successfully campaigned to become Sheriff of Maricopa County. Four years later after his policies had earned him unprecidented praise and an 85% public approval rating, he ran unchallenged when seeking a second term as Sheriff. Explaing his success, Arpaio often states, " As Sheriff I serve the public. The public is my boss" On August 3, 1993, he strated the nations largest Tent City for convicted inmates. Over 2000 convicted men and women serve their sentences in a canvas incarceration compound. It has garnered the attention of goverment officials, humanitarian organizations and international media, both with praise and criticism. The same is true of the chain gangs which work six days a week contributing thousands of dollars of free labor to the community. The male chain gang and the worlds first ever female chain gang clean streets, paint over graffiti, and bury indigents at White Tanks cemetery on the outskirts of Phoenix.